|International Criminal Police Cooperation
INTERPOL is not a police force. It is the machinery for international police cooperation and communication. The principles on which Interpol’s functioning is based have stood the best time. It has become clear that the organization cannot have teams of detectives with supranational powers who travel around investigating cases in different countries. International police cooperation is the coordinated action of the member countries’ police forces, all of which supply and request information and services.
Some of the important provisions of the Interpol constitution provide for the following:
- To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities, within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; and
- To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes.
- “It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character”.
ICP-Interpol National Central Bureau
The ICPO- Interpol Constitution calls for the appointment by each member country of a body to serve as the Nationals Central Bureau (NCB). Recognizing the importance of the role of the NCBs in the context of international police co-operation and believing that for an NCB to be effective and meet the needs of international police co-operation, the document entitled “The National Central Bureau of the ICP-Interpol: Policy”, was adopted as set of policy guidelines for the NCBs.
The NCBs activities can be summarized as follows:
- Collects documents and criminal intelligence, which have a direct bearing on international police co-operation from sources in that own countries, and pass this material on to the other NCBs and the General Secretariat.
- Ensures that police action or operations requested by another country’s NCBs are carried out on their territory;
- Receives requests for information, checks, etc. from another NCBs and reply to such request.
- Transmits request for international co-operation made by their own courts or police departments to the NCBs of other countries; and
- The Heads of the NCBs attend Interpol General Assembly sessions as members of their countries delegations, and subsequently ensure that the Assembly’s resolution are implemented.
The NCBs communicate directly among themselves. However, they keep the General Secretariat informed of their investigations so that the latter can perform its task of centralizing information and coordinating cooperation.
National Central Bureau- Interpol Manila
The NCB-Interpol Manila traces its beginnings in 1961 when the Philippines became a member of the ICPO – INTERPOL, with the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) as its focal point. Since then, the NCB-Interpol Manila has undergone changes, which enable it to confront the challenges of the times.
In one of the General Assembly meetings of the ICPO-INTERPOL, its has been decided and adopted that the National Central Bureau shall be handled by the controlling body or Headquarters of the Criminal Police Organization of a member State to be able to do its undertakings with authority.
In compliance thereto the President of the Philippines issued Memorandum Order Nr. 92 on February 15, 1993 designating the Philippine National Police as the INTERPOL National Central Bureau for the Philippines, with the Chief, Philippine National Police (PNP) as its concurrent Chairman.
The Interpol National Central Bureau was Originally composed of the following members:
Director General Philippine National Police ——- Chairman
Director, National Bureau of Investigation ——– Member
Commissioner, Bureau of Customs ———Member
Commissioner, Bureau of Internal Revenue ———Member
Commissioner, Bureau of Immigration ———Member
Governor, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ———Member
Executive Director, Dangerous Drug Board ———Member
Commissioner, EIIB ———Member
The first four were designated by the President, and the last four were unanimously chosen by members of the NATIONAL Law Enforcement Coordinating Committee (NALECC) as authorized by the President thru NALECC Resolution 93-10 dated 21 July 1993.
A significant change in its membership however was noted following the dissolution of EIIB in 1999. The Execitive Director of PCTC was chosen to replace the Commissioner, EIIB pursuant to NALECC Resolution No. 02-2000 dated 26 March 2002 and was subsequently designated as Head, NCB Secretariat. The NCB Secretariat was transferred to PCTC pursuant to Executive Order No. 100 dated 7 May 1999. Subsequently, the Central Management Office of the Department of Finance (DOF). The Presidential Anti-Organized Crime Commision, the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency, the Anti-Money Laundering Council and the Department of Finance become a member of the NALECC Sub-Committee on Interpol pursuant to NALECC Resolutions. The member agencies of the NALECC Sub-Committee on Interpol also serve as Functional Sub-agencies of the NALECC Sub-Committee on Interpol also serve as Functional Sub-Committee on Interpol also serve as Functional Sub-Bureaus of Interpol NCB Manila
Mission and Function of Interpol NCB-Manila
NCB-INTERPOL Manila serves as the office and main coordinating body for international police cooperation against transnational crimes representing all law enforcement agencies in the Philippines. In the accomplishment of its mission, NCB-INTERPOL Manila has the following functions.
- Monitor and coordinate all activities of all law enforcement agencies relative to transnational crime committed against or affecting the Philippines;
- Maintain records and minutes of all meetings of NCB-INTERPOL Manila.
- Operate and maintain the operation center of NCB-INTERPOL Manila as the focal point for international cooperation against transnational crimes for all law enforcement agencies in the Philippines; and
- The NCB-INTERPOL Manila also functions as a sub-committee of the NALECC for the monitoring of the sensitive activities of the latter.
Roles and Function of NCB Sub-Bureaus
- Receives request for information and record checks of local and foreign nationals and reply to such request.
- Conduct investigation of cases brought to their attention involving Filipino’s and foreign nationals as requested by other Interpol member countries.
- Monitor result of investigation for cases referred by Interpol for compliance and feedback.
- Ensures that cases referred for action are acted upon and reports are rendered promptly.
- Informs Interpol Manila on any case being handled by their agency involving foreign nationals or seek assistance for verification or any coordination needed with other Interpol member countries based on the Standard Message Format.
- Maintain a list of wanted persons (local/foreign) circulated by Interpol and inform Interpol Manila of any arrest.
- Gives summaries of the most important international cases in which their agency was involved; and
- Submits periodic activity report of accomplishments to Interpol Manila based on the Standard Message Format.
Information exchange between the Interpol General Secretariat and NCBs.
In its progress towards the goals and objectives set for the organization renewal of INTERPOL, the organization has undergone enormous changes in recent years notably in the stregthening of international police cooperation and in the modernization of telecommunications.
In order for Interpol to facilitate the rapid and reliable exchange of criminal investigative information among the police of member countries, the NCBs used the Interpol Global Communication System (I-24/7). In technical terms, I-24/7 is a security technology network which operates using Internet protocols and state of the art security technology. It delivers fast, reliable and secure information in a highly user-friendly manner permitting immediate analysis and identification. NCBs now have easy and immediate access to criminal information (drugs, counterfeit credit cards and fraudulently identity documents,stolen vehicles, international notices, weapons and explosives tracking systerm, finger prints and DNA, Stolen works of art…)
Telecommunication Network (X-400 Communication System)
One of INTERPOL’s prime objective is to ensure that it’s Member States have rapid, reliable, secure and permanently available system for transmitting to each other to the General Secretariat. The telecommunication as network, security by encryption system. The information to be transmitted maybe anything from typed text to images, fingerprints to database consolations, photographs to facts files.
Benefits that the Philippines Derive as Member of the INTERPOL
- As member of the ICPO-INTERPOL we can have access to police information on international Criminal Cases.
- Access to International Summaries of Criminal Cases.
- Attend meetings and symposiums on case of special topics.
- Request information about criminal intelligence in an international perspective through the criminal intelligence subdivision.
- Access to information dealing with economic and financial crime in an international level.
- Access to information dealing with illicit drug trafficking in an international level.
- Recipient of reference materials on criminology, crime prevention, criminal law and procedures, techniques used by the police etc.
- Participate in I.C.P.O – Interpol organized trainings.
- Receives technical assistance and support on telecommunication and computerization.
- Use of the IPSG to circulate information intended for International Circulation:a. Individual notices
b. Stolen property notices
c. Modus operandi sheets
d. Facilitating identification
e. Criminal information on intelligence
- Receives cooperation from other NCB’s in Combating International Crimes such as:a. Crimes against person
b. Crime against property
c. Organized crime and terrorism
d. Firearms and explosives used for criminal purposes
e. Human trafficking, exploitation of prostitution, child abuse
f. Unlawful interference with international civil aviation
g. Trafficking of precious substance (gold, diamond, etc.)
h. Currency counterfeiting and forgery
i. Identification, tracing, seizure and forfeiture of assets derived from criminal activities
j. Illicit drug trafficking
k. Drug related activities
- Receives cooperation on matters involving extradition from other NCB’s.
- Receives technical assistance granted by the more advanced countries to less advanced countries especially in connection with training and specialization of police personnel.